Notes & Commentary:

Ver. 1. Of this habitation.[1] In the Greek, of this tabernacle; i.e. of the body. St. Chrysostom takes notice that a tabernacle, or tent, is not to dwell in for a long time, but only to lodge in for a while, as this life is short; but the building God has prepared for his elect in heaven, is for eternity. (Witham) — But, although the hopes of possessing this eternal mansion consoles us interiorly, and supports us under the pressure of evil, the obligation we have of purchasing it, even at the expense of our lives, does not fail to afflict us. (Bible de Vence)

Ver. 2. To be clothed over, signifying the natural desire men have not to die, but to be changed without dying to a happy state in heaven. (Witham)

Ver. 3. That we may be found clothed, not naked,[2] not divested of the body, as before; i.e. we desire immortal happiness without dying: though some expound it, not naked; i.e. not deprived of the glory we hope for. (Witham)

Ver. 5. He that maketh us for this very thing, (literally, to this same thing ) is God, who created us to be eternally happy, who hath given us the earnest of the Spirit. See Chap. i. ver. 22. (Witham)

Ver. 6. We are absent from the Lord, and as it were pilgrims. He compares the condition of men in this mortal life with that of pilgrims far from their own beloved country, yet with hopes to arrive there, which makes them willing to undergo dangers, and makes Christians even resigned to death, to a separation of the body from the soul, that they may be present with the Lord, and enjoy him. But let every one reflect that he must be judged, and receive a reward or punishment according to his works. (ver. 10.) (Witham)

Ver. 7. It is only by faith we now walk in this foreign land towards God; we do not as yet feast on Him by any clear view. (Bible de Vence)

Ver. 11. Knowing, therefore, the fear of the Lord, and how dreadful a thing it is to appear at his tribunal, we endeavour to exhort men to fear and to worship him: and this intention is made known to God, who sees our heart: and I hope our sincere manner of asking and preaching is also known to your consciences. (Witham)

Ver. 12. We commend not, nor desire to commend ourselves, but they who may do harm to others, and to the progress of the gospel, make it necessary to speak what may give you an occasion to answer their objections, and even to glory in my behalf against those who glory in face, in outward appearances of learning and talents, but not in heart, being sensible themselves that they have no solid grounds of boasting in this manner. (Witham)

Ver. 13. For whether we be transported in mind, and out of zeal for the good of others seem to exceed in speaking of ourselves, it is to God, for God’s honour and that of his ministers: or whether we be more moderate,[3] (literally, sober ) that is, if I speak not, even what with truth I might, of my own actions, it is to you, to give you an example of modesty and humility.

Ver. 14. For the charity of Christ, the love of God, the love that Christ has shewn to me and all mankind, and a return of love due to him, presseth me on, is the motive of all that I do; because I consider that if one, our Redeemer Christ Jesus, died for all, then all were dead, and had been lost in their sins, had not Christ come to redeem us. Thus St. Augustine in many places, proving original sin against the Pelagians. Divers interpreters add this exposition, therefore all are dead; that is, ought to die, and by a new life look upon themselves as dead to sin, which is connected with what follows in the next verse. (Witham)

Ver. 15. And Christ died for all, (not only for the predestinate or the elect) that they also, who live, may not now live to themselves; that they may not follow their own inclinations of their nature, corrupted by sin, but may seek in all things the will of Christ, their Redeemer, their Lord, to whom they belong, who died and rose again for them. (Witham)

Ver. 16. Wherefore, henceforth we know no man according to the flesh; i.e. having our thoughts and hearts fixed upon Christ, as he is risen, and has prepared for us an immortal life, we know not, i.e. we do not esteem any thing in this mortal life, nor any man according to any human considerations of this life; we regard not whether they are Jews, and the sons of Abraham, or Gentiles; nay, if we have known and esteemed Christ, as descending from Abraham and David, now we know him so no longer, nor consider him as born a mortal man, but as he is risen immortal, and will bless us with an immortal and eternal glory. (Witham)

Ver. 17. If then any be in Christ, &c. The sense seems to be, if by believing in Christ we are become as it were new creatures, rescued by his grace and his Spirit, the old things are passed away, we must renounce all former carnal affections, all sin and all errors in which either Jews or Gentiles lived. — Behold all things are made new: the New Testament succeeds to the Old, the law and doctrine of Christ to the law of Moses, the Christian Church to the Jewish Synagogue, truth and grace to types and figures, &c. (Witham) — With the renovated Christian all his thoughts, sentiments, inclinations, and actions, are new.

Ver. 18. But all things (all these blessings of grace and glory) are of God, who hath sent his only divine Son, by whom he hath reconciled us to himself, by his incarnation and death for our redemption. (Witham)

Ver. 19. Not imputing, i.e. truly taking away our sins, blotting out the handwriting of the decree which was against us,…fastening it to the cross, as it is said, Colossians ii. 14. And to us, who are his apostles and the ministers of his gospel, he hath imparted and committed this word of reconciliation, by the preaching of his doctrine, and the administration of his sacraments, &c. In these functions we act and we speak to you as the ambassadors of Christ; we speak to you in his name, we represent his person, when we exhort you to be reconciled to God. “He that heareth you, heareth me.” (Luke x. 16.) (Witham)

Ver. 20. Be not deaf to this voice, harden not your hearts, suffer yourselves to be moved to the charity of God: it is immense, it is infinite. (Bible de Vence)

Ver. 21. Him (Christ) who knew no sin, (who had never sinned, nor was capable of sinning) he (God) hath made [4] sin for us. I had translated, with some French translators, he hath made a sacrifice for sin, as it is expounded by St. Augustine and many others, and grounded upon the authority of the Scriptures, in which the sacrifices for sins are divers times called sins, as Osee iv. 8. and in several places in Leviticus, by the Hebrew word Chattat, which signifies a sin, and is translated a victim for sin. But as this is not the only interpretation, and that my design is always a literal translation of the text, not a paraphrase, upon second thoughts I judged it better to follow the very words of the Greek, as well as of the Latin text. For besides the exposition already mentioned, others expound these words, him he hath made sin for us, to signify that he made Christ like unto sinners, a mortal man, with the similitude of sin. Others that he made he reputed a sinner; with the wicked was he reputed; (Mark xv. 28.) God having laid upon him all our iniquities. (Isaias liii. 6.) — That we might be made the justice of God in him; that is, that we might be justified and sanctified by God’s sanctifying grace, and the justice we receive from him. (Witham) — Sin for us. That is, to be a sin-offering, a victim for sin. (Challoner)


[1] Ver. 1. Habitationis, tou skenous.

[2] Ver. 3. Si tamen vestiti, non nudi inveniamur, eige kai endusamenoi: some read, ekdusamenoi. See St. Chrysostom.

[3] Ver. 13. Sive enim mente excedimus, Deo, sive sobrii sumus, vobis, eite gar exestemen, theo eite sophronoumen, umin. See Annotation on Mark iii. 21. p. 147.[4] Ver. 21. Pro nobis peccatum fecit, uper emon amartian epoiesen. See St. Augustine, lib. de pec. Orig. chap. 32. serm. 48. de verbis Dei. nunc 134. tom. v. p. 655. and Serm. vi. de verb. Apost. chap. 8. Serm. clv. t. 5. p. 745.; Epist. ad Honoratum 120, nunc 140. chap. 30. tom. ii. p. 450, &c.

Bible Text & Cross-references:

He is willing to leave his earthly mansion, to be with the Lord. His charity for the Corinthians.

1 For we know that if our earthly house of this habitation be dissolved, that we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in heaven.

2 For in this also we groan, desiring to be clothed over with our habitation, which is from heaven.

3 *If so that we may be found clothed, not naked.

4 For we also, who are in this tabernacle, do groan, being burthened: because we would not be unclothed, but clothed over, that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life.

5 Now he that maketh us for this very thing, is God, who hath given us the pledge, of the Spirit.

6 Therefore, having always confidence, knowing that, while we are in the body, we are absent from the Lord:

7 (For we walk by faith, and not by sight)

8 We are confident, and have a good will to be absent rather from the body, and to be present with the Lord.

9 And therefore we labour, whether absent or present, to please him.

10 *For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the proper things of the body, according as he hath done, whether it be good or evil.

11 Knowing, therefore, the fear of the Lord, we persuade men: but to God we are manifest. And I trust also that in your consciences we are manifest.

12 We commend not ourselves again to you, but give you occasion to glory in our behalf: that you may have somewhat to answer them who glory in face, and not in heart.

13 For whether we be transported in mind, it is to God: or whether we be sober, it is for you.

14 For the charity of Christ presseth us: judging this, that if one died for all, then all were dead.

15 And Christ died for all: that they also, who live, may not now live to themselves, but to him, who died for them, and rose again.

16 Wherefore, henceforth we know no man according to the flesh. And if we have known Christ according to the flesh: but now we know him so no longer.

17 If then any be in Christ a new creature: the old things are passed away: *behold all things are made new.

18 But all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself, by Christ: and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation.

19 For God indeed was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself, not imputing to them their sins, and he hath placed in us the word of reconciliation.

20 We are, therefore, ambassadors for Christ, God as it were exhorting by us. For Christ, we beseech you, be ye reconciled to God.

21 Him, who knew no sin, he hath made sin for us, that we might be made the justice of God in him.



3: Apocalypse xvi. 15.

10: Romans xiv. 10.

17: Isaias xliii. 19.; Apocalypse xxi. 5.