Galatians iii.Notes & Commentary:

Ver. 1. Before whose eyes Jesus Christ….crucified among you.[1] The common exposition is, that St. Paul had before described and set before them Christ crucified. Others, that it had been clearly foretold by the prophets that Christ was crucified for them. (Witham)

Ver. 2. Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the law? As if he said, you esteem it a great favour to have received those spiritual gifts of working miracles, &c. When you were made Christians, had you these favours by the works of the law, or was it not by the hearing of faith, and by the faith of Christ, that you had such extraordinary graces? and when you have begun thus happily by the spirit of Christ and his spiritual gifts, are you for finishing and thinking to make yourselves more perfect by the exterior works of the law, the circumcision of the flesh, and such like ceremonies? (Witham)

Ver. 4-5. If yet in vain: i.e. I have still good hopes, that what you have already suffered by persecutions and self-denials, since your conversion, will not be in vain; as they would be, if you sought to be justified by the works and ceremonies of the law of Moses, and not by the faith and law of Christ, by which only you can be truly sanctified. (Witham) — St. Jerome, St. Augustine, and others, suppose that the power of working miracles still remained in the Galatians, notwithstanding what had passed; but St. Chrysostom and several others, explain it of a power they had formerly possessed. (Calmet)

Ver. 6. As it is written: Abraham believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice. See Romans iv. 3. They only who imitate the faith of Abraham shall be blessed with him, and are his spiritual children, whether Jews or Gentiles, whom God promised to bless by the seed of Abraham; i.e. by Christ, who descended from Abraham. (Witham) — The apostle thus argues with the Galatians; Abraham, who was never under the law, still received the grace of justification in reward of his faith, even before he had received circumcision. Now, if a person can be justified without the law, the law can be no ways necessary to salvation. (Calmet)

Ver. 10-14. Are under a curse….cursed is every man, &c. The sense of these is to be found in Deuteronomy xxvii. 26. in the Septuagint. Some expound them thus: curses are pronounced against every one who keeps not all the precepts of the law, but there is not any one; i.e. scarce any one, who keepeth them all; therefore all under the law are under some curse. But as it cannot be said that no one kept all the precepts, especially the moral precepts of the law, mentioned in that place of Deuteronomy; (for Zacharias and Elizabeth were both just in the sight of God, Luke i., and doubtless many others lived so as not to incur those curses, but were just and were saved, though not by virtue of the works of the law only, nor without faith in God, and in their Redeemer, who was to come) therefore others understand that all such persons fall under these curses, who think to comply with all these precepts by their own strength, or who confide in the works of the law only, without faith in Christ, the Messias, and without which they cannot be saved. This agrees with what follows, that the just man liveth by faith. (Habacuc ii. 4.) See Romans i. 17. — Now the law is not of faith, i.e. the works done merely in compliance with the law, are not works of faith that can save a man: but he that doth those things of the law, shall live in them; i.e. says St. Jerome, shall have a long temporal life promised in the law; or, as others say, shall have life everlasting, if they are done with faith. — Christ hath redeemed us from these curses; but to do this, hath made himself a curse for our sake, by taking upon himself the similitude of a sinner, and by dying upon the cross, as if he had been guilty of the greatest sins, having only charged himself with our sins, inasmuch as it is written: (Deuteronomy xxi. 23.) cursed is every one who hangeth on a tree; which is to be understood, in case he deserve it for his own sins. — That the blessing of Abraham (or promised to Abraham) might be fulfilled; i.e. Christ redeemed us, that these blessings might be fulfilled on all nations, and that all might receive the promise of the Spirit, or the promised spirit of grace believing in Christ, who is now come. (Witham)

Ver. 15, &c. I speak after the manner of man; or, by a comparison, says St. Chrysostom, common among men. If a man make or execute his last will, or any deed or contract, it stands good; no one contemns it, or pretends to annul it, or add any thing to it: how much more shall the testament, the covenant, or solemn promise which God made to Abraham, to bless all nations, stand firm and have its effect? And he said to his seed, to one, i.e. in Christ only, not to his seeds, as it were by many. It is observed, that the word seed being a collective signification, may grammatically be taken for the plural as well as for the singular number; so that we are to have more regard to St. Paul’s authority, who expounds to us what is here signified by the word seed, than to the word itself. — The law which was made after four hundred and thirty years (consult the chronologists) does not make void the testament: nor the promise which God himself made to Abraham, that mankind should be blessed only by Christ. These blessings could not be by the law of Moses ordained, or delivered by angels in the hand of a mediator, to wit, of Moses, according to the common interpretation, who, in receiving and publishing the law, was as it were a mediator betwixt God and his people. — And a mediator is not of one, (but is called so, as mediating betwixt two parties) but God is one. This is to signify, that when he made the covenant or promise to Abraham, he made this promise himself, and did not make use of a mediator inferior to himself, as when he gave the law; and the law, in this respect, was inferior to the promise; but the chief difference was, that true justice and sanctification was not given by the law, for so it would have contradicted and have made void the promise made before to Moses[Abraham?], that the blessings of true sanctification should only be by his seed and by faith in Christ, the Son of Abraham and of David. According to the Scriptures all things (i.e. all men) were shut up together under sin, under the slavery of sin, from which they were not to be redeemed but by the accomplishment of the promise, and by the coming of Christ, by his grace, and faith in him. (Witham) — Because of transgressions. To restrain them from sin, by fear and threats. — Ordained by Angels. The law was delivered by Angels, speaking in the name and person of God to Moses, who was the mediator on this occasion between God and the people. (Challoner) — The law was established not to occasion sin, but to manifest sin, and to punish sin. Ezechiel (xx. 11.) shews the meaning of the apostle, when he says: that God, after bringing the Israelites out of Egypt, imposed laws upon them that gave life to such as observed them. This was the decalogue, published immediately after the passage of the Red Sea; but violating these commandments, they became guilty of idolatry. To punish them, God imposed upon them precepts which are not good, and which give not life. (ver. 24, 25.) This is the ceremonial law, which was established and published by degrees during the forty years the Israelites sojourned in the desert. It is then evident that this law was given to punish transgressions in the Israelites, and to prevent relapses. This is the sense of St. Paul.

Ver. 22. Hath concluded all under sin; i.e. hath declared all to be under sin, from which they could not be delivered but by faith in Jesus Christ, the promised seed. (Challoner) — The law was not given to all; but all its precepts and prohibitions were binding under sin, and all violators of the law were guilty of sin.

Ver. 24. As for the law, it was put or given because of transgressions, to put a stop, by the punishments prescribed, to idolatry and other crimes, which the Jews had learnt from other nations, particularly in Egypt. The law was a pedagogue, or schoolmaster, to direct and correct and bring men to Christ, our chief Master, our great Mediator, who being now come, we are no longer under our former pedagogue. Christ hath by his grace made all, who believe in him and follow his doctrine, his sons and his adoptive children, whether they were before Jews or Gentiles; now they are all one, united in the same faith, and in the same spirit of charity. All the faithful are to be accounted of the seed of Abraham, and his spiritual children by the accomplishment of the promise. (Witham) — Pedagogue; i.e. schoolmaster, conductor, or instructor. (Challoner)

Ver. 27. The baptism of infants shews that the sacrament gives grace of itself, by divine appointment; or, as divines say, ex opere operato.

Ver. 28. Neither Jew, &c. That is, no distinction of Jew, &c. (Challoner)


[1] Ver. 1. Præscriptus, proegraphe; not proscriptus, as in some readings of the Latin text: and in vobis is better understood to be joined with præscriptus than with crucifixus.

Bible Text & Cross-references:

The spirit, and the blessing promised to Abraham, cometh not by the law, but by faith.

1 O senseless Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that you should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been set forth, crucified among you?

2 This only would I learn of you: Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?

3 Are you so foolish, that, whereas you began in the spirit, you would now be made perfect by the flesh?

4 Have you suffered so great things in vain? If yet in vain.

5 He, therefore, who giveth to you the spirit, and worketh miracles among you, doth he do it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of the faith?

6 As it is written: *Abraham believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice.

7 Know ye, therefore, that they who are of faith, are the children of Abraham.

8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God justifieth the Gentiles by faith, told Abraham before: *In thee shall all nations be blessed.

9 Therefore, they who are of faith, shall be blessed with the faithful Abraham.

10 For as many as are of the works of the law, are under a curse. For it is written: *Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law, to do them.

11 But that by the law no man is justified with God, it is manifest: *because the just man liveth by faith.

12 But the law is not of faith: but *he that doth these things, shall live in them.

13 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us; for it is written: *Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:

14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Christ Jesus: that we may receive the promise of the spirit by faith.

15 Brethren (I speak after the manner of man) *yet a man’s testament, if it be confirmed, no man despiseth, nor addeth to it.

16 To Abraham were the promises made, and to his seed. He saith not, And to his seeds, as of many: but as of one, And to thy seed, who is Christ.

17 Now this I say, that the testament which was confirmed by God, the law which was made after four hundred and thirty years, doth not disannul to make the promise of no effect.

18 For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise. But God gave it to Abraham by promise.

19 Why then was the law? It was set because of transgressions, till the seed should come, to whom he made the promise, being ordained by Angels in the hand of a mediator.

20 Now a mediator is not of one: but God is one.

21 Was the law then against the promises of God? God forbid. For if there had been a law given which could give life, verily, justice should have been by the law.

22 *But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by the faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.

23 But before the faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto that faith which was to be revealed.

24 Wherefore the law was our pedagogue in Christ, that we might be justified by faith.

25 But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a pedagogue.

26 For you are all the children of God by faith, in Christ Jesus.

27 *For as many of you as have been baptized in Christ, have put on Christ.

28 There is neither Jew nor Greek; there is neither bond nor free; there is neither male nor female. For you are all one in Christ Jesus.

29 And if you be Christ’s; then you are the seed of Abraham, heirs according to the promise.



6: Genesis xv. 16.; Romans iv. 3.; James ii. 23.

8: Genesis xii. 3.; Ecclesiasticus xliv. 20.

10: Deuteronomy xxvii. 26.

11: Habacuc ii. 4.; Romans i. 17.

12: Leviticus xviii. 5.

13: Deuteronomy xxi. 23.

15: Hebrews ix. 17.

22: Romans iii. 9.

27: Romans vi. 3.