Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 2. Speak. The cause of the different families of the Levites now being fully decided, that none of the other tribes might pretend to the honour of the priesthood, God orders Moses to propose another miracle to them, of a less terrible nature than the preceding one. — Man, or prince of the tribe. (Haydock) — The name of Aaron was written upon his staff, which was taken from an almond tree; those of the princes of the other tribes appeared upon their respective rods, and represented their different families, ver. 3. (Calmet)
Ver. 5. They murmur. Hence it seems this miracle was not unnecessary, as the people were still inclined to murmur at the pre-eminence given to Aaron. (Haydock)
Ver. 6. Besides, &c. Hebrew and the other versions, “the rod of Aaron was in the midst of their rods.” Whence some infer, that there were only 12 rods. But Origen, (hom. 9,) and most others, allow 13, as the tribe of Joseph was divided into those of Ephraim and Manasses; (Calmet) each of whom had a proper representative or prince. See chap. ii. 18, 20; x. 22; xiii. 9, 12. The tribe of Levi is generally placed by itself. If there were only 12 rods, whether would the name of Elisama, or that of Gamaliel, designate the tribe of Joseph? Who was properly the prince of that udivided tribe? (Haydock)
Ver. 8. The rod of Aaron for the house of Levi, was budded, &c. This rod of Aaron, which thus miraculously brought forth fruit, was a figure of the blessed Virgin conceiving and bringing forth her Son, without any prejudice to her virginity. (Challoner) — Almonds. Buds, blossoms, leaves, and fruit just formed, (Isaias xviii. 5,) appeared upon the rod, which before was dry. Tostat believes, that it continued in the same state during the whole time that it was preserved in the ark. “The grace of the priesthood never fades.” (St. Ambrose, ep. 63, or 58.) The almond tree is the first which blossoms, and therefore it is styled a watching rod, Jeremias i. 11. The Fathers observe in this of Aaron, a figure of Christ’s passion and glorious resurrection; and Origen (hom. 9,) remarks, that from his cross proceed the sweet odours of virtue, and the fruits of converted nations. (Calmet) — For Christ made peace through the blood of his cross, Colossians i. 20. The blessed Virgin, whom the blooming rod also represents, might as easily become a mother without losing her virginal integrity, as this dry rod might produce fruit, without receiving any moisture from the earth. (St. Augustine; St. Gregory of Nyssa; St. Bernard; &c.) (Worthington)
Ver. 10. Testimony. St. Paul (Hebrews ix. 4,) says it was in the ark. See Deuteronomy xxxi. 26. (Calmet) — It was not the rod with which so many miracles had been wrought. (Tirinus)
Ver. 12. All perish. Many had been already destroyed. Those who remained, and were conscious of their seditious practices, feared a similar treatment. (Haydock)
Ver. 13. Destroyed. They betray the sentiments of their hearts; though some believe that they were now entering into themselves, and desirous to know what they must do to escape the fate of their brethren. God gives them an answer in the following chapter, teaching them that they must refrain from approaching to the tabernacle, unless they be authorized; and provide such things as are requisite for the maintenance of those, whom he has chosen for his ministers. (Calmet) — Afterwards, he passes over the transactions of about 35 years, in profound silence, that the memory of those who had so often murmured, might perish. (Salien, A.C. 1505. [1505 B.C.])
Bible Text & Cross-references:
The priesthood is confirmed to Aaron by the miracle of the blooming of his rod, which is kept for a monument in the tabernacle.
1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:
2 Speak to the children of Israel, and take of every one of them a rod by their kindreds, of all the princes of the tribes, twelve rods, and write the name of every man upon his rod.
3 And the name of Aaron shall be for the tribe of Levi, and one rod shall contain all their families:
4 And thou shalt lay them up in the tabernacle of the covenant before the testimony, where I will speak to thee.
5 Whomsoever of these I shall choose, his rod shall blossom: and I will make to cease from me the murmurings of the children of Israel, wherewith they murmur against you.
6 And Moses spoke to the children of Israel: and all the princes gave him rods one for every tribe: and there were twelve rods besides the rod of Aaron.
7 And when Moses had laid them up before the Lord in the tabernacle of the testimony:
8 He returned on the following day, and found that the rod of Aaron for the house of Levi, was budded: and that the buds swelling, it had bloomed blossoms, which spreading the leaves, were formed into almonds.
9 Moses therefore brought out all the rods from before the Lord to all the children of Israel: and they saw, and every one received their rods.
10 And the Lord said to Moses: Carry back the rod of Aaron into the tabernacle of the testimony, *that it may be kept there for a token of the rebellious children of Israel, and that their complaints may cease from me, lest they die.
11 And Moses did as the Lord had commanded.
12 And the children of Israel said to Moses: Behold we are consumed, we all perish.
13 Whosoever approacheth to the tabernacle of the Lord, he dieth. Are we all to a man to be utterly destroyed?
10: Hebrews ix. 4.