Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. Trespass. Trespasses, for which these offerings were to be made, were less offences, than those for which the sin-offerings were appointed. (Challoner) See chap. iv. 2. — Delictum, trespass, answers to the Hebrew asham, and the Greek plemmeleia; (Haydock) being of a more extensive signification that the Hebrew chete, sin, as it comprises even sins against knowledge. (Parkhurst) See chap. iv. 2. — No particular ceremonies are enjoined, (ver. 7,) only a he-goat or a ram was to be offered; if the former, the rump, &c., were to be given (ver. 3); if the latter, the fat of the intestines and the reins were to be offered, and the blood poured out at the foot of the altar. — Victim. Septuagint, “ram.” — Holy. To be eaten by priests, and in the court of the tabernacle, ver. 6. (Calmet) — Sins of commission, peccata, and of omission, delicta, are equally offensive to God. (St. Augustine, q. 20.) (Worthington)
Ver. 8. Skin. Of these skins a great profit was made. (Philo, de Prĉm. Sacerd.)
Ver. 9. Priest’s; to be divided among his brethren, ver. 10. They officiated a week by turns. (Calmet) — Each, therefore, claimed the parts allotted by God to the priest on duty. But it is not certain what part they could retain for their own use. Some think that the unbaked flour alone was to be distributed equally, ver. 10. (Bonfrere)
Ver. 11. This. Here the Roman, Septuagint, Junius, &c., commence the 7th chapter.
Ver. 12. Oil. Any of these sorts of bread would suffice. Jacob and Jethro had formerly offered sacrifices of praise, and the Greeks had some which they termed Soteria. (Calmet)
Ver. 13. Bread, for the use of the priests, chap. ii. 11.
Ver. 14. Of which leavened bread, one, representing all the rest, shall be offered for first-fruits. Hebrew, “a heave-offering,” not as a sacrifice. (Menochius) — Others maintain that a loaf, without leaven, was laid upon the altar; and all the rest given to the priest. (Calmet)
Ver. 15. Morning. Thus were they admonished to let the poor share of the bounty which God had bestowed upon them. (Theod. and Philo)
Ver. 16. It. The victim of thanksgiving was more worthy, as it proceeded from a more disinterested motive. (Menochius) — Such victims as were perfectly voluntary might be received, though they had some defect, chap. xxii. 23.
Ver. 17. Fire. No part must be reserved so long, as to become offensive and putrid. (Calmet)
Ver. 18. Yea rather. Hebrew, “it is an abomination to be thrown away,” and the soul, &c. Thus by neglecting to comply exactly with God’s commands, we lose the fruits of our former piety. (Haydock) — The flesh of these victims might be eaten in any clean place, by all those who were not defiled, chap. x. 14. (Josephus) (Tirinus)
Ver. 19. Shall eat of it. That is, of the flesh of the thanks-offering. (Challoner) — People might eat the flesh of animals which had been touched by something unclean, Deuteronomy xii. 15, 22. But victims, defiled by any accident, were to be burnt. The others were to be eaten only by such as were clean. (Menochius)
Ver. 20. People excommunicated, or even slain, either by God, or by the judge. (Calmet)
Ver. 21. Uncleanness of man, means a person defiled, or his excrements. (A Lapide)
Ver. 23. Eat, when they have been once immolated. See chap. iii. 17.
Ver. 24. Uses. Hebrew, “for any other use: but you shall not eat it.” Origen (hom. 5,) seems to reject this fat entirely.
Ver. 26. Beasts. Hence the Rabbins except the blood of fishes, as it is not specified. (Calmet)
Ver. 29. Sacrifice….Libations, flour, wine, and oil. (Lyranus)
Ver. 30. Hands, upon a silver dish. The priest shall direct his hands to form a triple cross. (Cajetan) (Tirinus)
Ver. 31. The breast, and other parts mentioned, Deuteronomy xviii. 3.
Ver. 34. Separated from the breast for the Lord, and waved before Him, as the Hebrew intimates.
Ver. 35. Anointing. Le Clerc translates the food. On this Aaron shall be maintained. This shall be his salary or portion, in quality of God’s anointed.
Ver. 36. Israel. Hebrew adds, “in the day of his anointing,” or consecration. (Calmet)
Ver. 37. Law. Six sorts of sacrifices are here specified, holocausts, flour-offerings, sin and trespass-offerings, those for the consecration of priests, and the peace-offerings.
Ver. 38. In, or at the foot of Mount Sinai. (Haydock)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
Of sacrifices for trespasses and thanks-offerings. No fat nor blood is to be eaten.
1 This* also is the law of the sacrifice for a trespass, it is most holy:
2 And where the holocaust is immolated, the victim also for a trespass shall be slain: the blood thereof shall be poured round about the altar.
3 They shall offer thereof the rump and the fat that covereth the entrails:
4 The two little kidneys, and the fat which is by the flanks, and the caul of the liver, with the little kidneys.
5 And the priest shall burn them upon the altar, it is the burnt-sacrifice of the Lord for a trespass.
6 Every male of the priestly race, shall eat this flesh in a holy place, because it is most holy.
7 As the sacrifice for sin is offered, so is also that for a trespass: the same shall be the law of both these sacrifices: it shall belong to the priest that offereth it.
8 The priest that offereth the victim of holocaust, shall have the skin thereof.
9 And every sacrifice of flour that is baked in the oven, and whatsoever is dressed on the gridiron, or in the frying-pan, shall be the priest’s that offereth it:
10 Whether they be tempered with oil, or dry, all the sons of Aaron shall have one as much as another.
11 This is the law of the sacrifice of peace-offerings that is offered to the Lord.
12 If the oblation be for thanksgiving, they shall offer loaves without leaven tempered with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and fine flour fried, and cakes tempered and mingled with oil:
13 Moreover loaves of leavened bread, with the sacrifice of thanks, which is offered for peace-offerings:
14 Of which one shall be offered to the Lord for first-fruits, and shall be the priest’s that shall pour out the blood of the victim.
15 And the flesh of it shall be eaten the same day, neither shall any of it remain until the morning.
16 If any man by vow, or of his own accord, offer a sacrifice, it shall in like manner be eaten the same day: and if any of it remain until the morrow, it is lawful to eat it:
17 But whatsoever shall be found on the third day shall be consumed with fire.
18 If any man eat of the flesh of the victim of peace-offerings on the third day, the oblation shall be of no effect, neither shall it profit the offerer: yea rather whatsoever soul shall defile itself with such meat, shall be guilty of transgression.
19 The flesh that hath touched any unclean thing, shall not be eaten, but shall be burnt with fire: he that is clean shall eat of it.
20 If any one that is defiled, shall eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace-offerings, which is offered to the Lord, he shall be cut off from his people.
21 And he that hath touched the uncleanness of man, or of beast, or of any thing that can defile, and shall eat of such kind of flesh, shall be cut off from his people.
22 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:
23 Say to the children of Israel: The fat of a sheep, and of an ox, and of a goat you shall not eat.
24 The fat of a carcass that hath died of itself, and of a beast that was caught by another beast, you shall have for divers uses.
25 If any man eat the fat that should be offered for the burnt-sacrifice of the Lord, he shall perish out of his people.
26 Moreover you shall not eat the blood of any creature whatsoever, whether of birds or beasts.
27 Every one that eateth blood, shall perish from among the people.
28 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:
29 Speak to the children of Israel, saying: He that offereth a victim of peace-offerings to the Lord, let him offer therewith a sacrifice also, that is, the libations thereof.
30 He shall hold in his hands the fat of the victim, and the breast: and when he hath offered and consecrated both to the Lord, he shall deliver them to the priest,
31 Who shall burn the fat upon the altar, but the breast shall be Aaron’s, and his sons’.
32 The right shoulder also of the victims of peace-offerings, shall fall to the priest for first-fruits.
33 He among the sons of Aaron, that offereth the blood and the fat, he shall have the right shoulder also for his portion.
34 For the breast that is elevated, and the shoulder that is separated, I have taken of the children of Israel, from off their victims of peace-offerings, and have given them to Aaron the priest, and to his sons, by a law for ever, from all the people of Israel.
35 This is the anointing of Aaron and his sons, in the ceremonies of the Lord, in the day when Moses offered them, that they might do the office of priesthood,
36 And the things that the Lord commanded to be given them by the children of Israel, by a perpetual observance in their generations.
37 This is the law of holocaust, and of the sacrifice for sin, and for trespass, and for consecration, and the victims of peace-offerings:
38 Which the Lord appointed to Moses in Mount Sinai, when he commanded the children of Israel, that they should offer their oblations to the Lord in the desert of Sinai.