2 Paralipomenon xxxv.
Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 3. By whose. Septuagint, “the powerful in Israel, that they might be sanctified to the Lord; and they put,” &c. Hebrew, “who instructed all Israel, the holy people of the Lord: Put,” &c. (Haydock) — No more. Hebrew adds, “upon your shoulders;” (Haydock) whence it is inferred, that it had been carried about the cities of Juda, under the impious kings, who would not suffer it in the temple. (Calmet) — Some believe that it was kept in the house of Sellum, the uncle of Jeremias, and husband of Olda. (St. Jerome, Trad.) (Tirinus)
Ver. 5. Families. Hebrew adds, “according to the divisions of the families of the fathers of your brethren, the people, (Haydock; or laics. Calmet) and the division of the families of the Levites.” All were placed, with great order, in the temple.
Ver. 6. Which. Hebrew, “of the Lord, by the hand of Moses,” which ordinances he has written down. (Menochius)
Ver. 7. In. Hebrew, “for the Passover-offerings, from the flock, lambs and kids, in number 30,000.” Et reliqui pecoris, is not expressed. (Haydock) — The small cattle might be intended for other sacrifices. (Menochius)
Ver. 8. Offered. Hebrew, “gave to the people.” (Haydock) — Rulers: the first alone was high priest. (Calmet) — Small cattle: literally, cattle of different sorts;” commixtim. Protestants supply, “small cattle,” which is not now in Hebrew. (Haydock) — Syriac and Arabic have, “sheep;” but we had best follow (Calmet) the Septuagint, “sheep, both lambs and kids.” Either would suffice, Exodus xii. 5.
Ver. 9. Cattle. Protestants again supply these words. Septuagint have, “sheep.” (Haydock)
Ver. 11. Blood is expressed in the Septuagint and understood in Hebrew. (Haydock) — With. Hebrew and Septuagint, “from their hands;” (Haydock) receiving it from the officers, who might slay their own victims, (Calmet) unless they were unclean, chap. xxx. 17. (Haydock) — Holocausts. Hebrew and Septuagint speak of the paschal lambs. (Haydock) — Holocausts were regularly to be flayed by priests, Leviticus i. 6. The hurry of the solemnity, (Calmet) and necessity, here excused the Levites, (Menochius) if we understand proper holocausts. (Haydock)
Ver. 12. Separated. Septuagint, “prepared the holocaust to give; having taken notice to whom the victims belonged, before they took off the skin, (Menochius) or rather, separating these from the other peace-offerings. (Tournemine)
Ver. 13. Victims. Hebrew and Septuagint, “but the holy offerings they boiled.” See Exodus xii. 9. (Haydock)
Ver. 15. Prophets. Hebrew, “seer.” But Septuagint, &c., read in the plural. These were “prophets of the king,” (Haydock) or masters of music. (Calmet) — Vulgate might insinuate that these three gave orders, as well as David. But they were in office under him, as people of the same name were, probably, under Josias. (Haydock)
Ver. 18. As Josias kept. He displayed greater liberality (Estius. See 4 Kings xxiii. 20.) and devotion; and the festival had also been neglected for some time. (Worthington)
Ver. 20. Charcamis belonged to the Assyrian monarch, (Isaias x. 9.) who subdued the empire of Babylon, chap. xxxiii. 11.
Ver. 21. With me. Grotius thinks that Jeremias had given the order; and the author of Hebrew Traditions, supposes that he forbade Josias to oppose Pharao, who, it seems, was assured of victory. (Calmet) — But this is uncertain; and Josias might justly suspect that the king of Egypt spoke without authority. (Haydock) — The augurs of the latter might declare the truth, (Menochius) though they could not dive into futurity. (Haydock) — Herodotus (i.) informs us, that Nechos fought against the Syrians, (or Israelites) in Magdelum, and took Cadythis, a city as large as Sardis, of Lydia; probably Jerusalem, (Du Hamel) or Cades. (Calmet)
Ver. 22. Prepared. Hebrew, “disguised himself,” like Achab; (Calmet) or set his army in array. Septuagint, “he was bent on fighting him.” (Haydock) — He supposed that Pharao intended to invade his dominions, and God would withdraw him from the world. (Worthington)
Ver. 24. After the manner of kings, is not in Hebrew, &c. (Haydock) — Curtius (iv.) informs us, that the Persian monarch had always a horse behind his chariot, to be ready in case of any accident.
Ver. 25. Lamentations. Some think that we have them in the Bible. (Josephus, &c.) — Others believe that they are lost. (Salien, the year of the world 3425.) — Law, on the anniversary; (Menochius) or when any calamity occurs, the lamentations of Jeremias are used. (Tirinus) — There were collections of such poems, as well as of canticles, for victory and marriages. (Calmet)
Ver. 27. Israel is placed first in Hebrew and Septuagint. (Haydock) — The kings of Juda assumed the title, as the kingdom had been subverted above a century; and the wretched remains of Israel had retreated into the territories, (Calmet) or acknowledged their dominion. (Haydock)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
Josias celebrateth a most solemn Pasch. He is slain by the king of Egypt.
1 And *Josias kept a Phase to the Lord in Jerusalem, and it was sacrificed on the fourteenth day of the first month.
2 And he set the priests in their offices, and exhorted them to minister in the house of the Lord.
3 And he spoke to the Levites, by whose instruction all Israel was sanctified to the Lord, saying: Put the ark in the sanctuary of the temple, which Solomon, the son of David, king of Israel, built: for you shall carry it no more: but minister now to the Lord, your God, and to his people, Israel.
4 And prepare yourselves by your houses, and families, according to your courses, as David, king of Israel, commanded, and Solomon, his son, hath written.
5 And serve ye in the sanctuary by the families and companies of Levi,
6 And being sanctified kill the Phase, and prepare your brethren, that they may do according to the words which the Lord spoke by the hand of Moses.
7 And Josias gave to all the people that were found there in the solemnity of the Phase, of lambs and of kids, of the flocks, and of other small cattle, thirty thousand, and of oxen, three thousand: all these were of the king’s substance.
8 And his princes willingly offered what they had vowed, both to the people, and to the priests and the Levites. Moreover, Helcias, and Zacharias, and Jahiel, rulers of the house of the Lord, gave to the priests to keep the Phase, two thousand six hundred small cattle, and three hundred oxen.
9 And Chonenias, and Semeias, and Nathanael, his brethren, and Hasabias, and Jehiel, and Jozabad, princes of the Levites, gave to the rest of the Levites to celebrate the Phase, five thousand small cattle, and five hundred oxen.
10 And the ministry was prepared, and the priests stood in their office: the Levites also, in their companies, according to the king’s commandment.
11 And the Phase was immolated: and the priests sprinkled the blood with their hand, and the Levites flayed the holocausts:
12 And they separated them to give them by the houses and families of every one, and to be offered to the Lord, as it is written in the book of Moses; and with the oxen they did in like manner.
13 And they roasted the Phase with fire, according to that which is written in the law: but the victims of peace-offerings they boiled in caldrons, and kettles, and pots, and they distributed them speedily among all the people.
14 And afterwards they made ready for themselves, and for the priests: for the priests were busied in offering of holocausts and the fat until night: wherefore the Levites prepared for themselves, and for the priests, the sons of Aaron, last.
15 And the singers, the sons of Asaph, stood in their order, according to the commandment of David, and Asaph, and Heman, and Idithun, the prophets of the king: and the porters kept guard at every gate, so as not to depart one moment from their service: and, therefore, their brethren, the Levites, prepared meats for them.
16 So all the service of the Lord was duly accomplished that day, both in keeping the Phase, and offering holocausts upon the altar of the Lord, according to the commandment of king Josias.
17 And the children of Israel that were found there, kept the Phase at that time, and the feast of unleavened bread seven days.
18 There was no Phase like to this in Israel, from the days of Samuel the prophet: neither did any of all the kings of Israel keep such a Phase as Josias kept, with the priests, and the Levites, and all Juda, and Israel that were found, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
19 In the eighteenth year of the reign of Josias was this Phase celebrated.
20 *After that Josias had repaired the temple, Nechao, king of Egypt, came up to fight in Charcamis, by the Euphrates: and Josias went out to meet him.
21 But he sent messengers to him, saying: What have I to do with thee, O king of Juda? I come not against thee this day, but I fight against another house, to which God hath commanded me to go in haste: forbear to do against God, who is with me, lest he kill thee.
22 Josias would not return, but prepared to fight against him, and hearkened not to the words of Nechao, from the mouth of God, *but went to fight in the field of Mageddo.
23 And there he was wounded by the archers, and he said to his servants: Carry me out of the battle, for I am grievously wounded.
24 And they removed him from the chariot into another, that followed him after the manner of kings, and they carried him away to Jerusalem, and he died, and was buried in the monument of his fathers, and all Juda and Jerusalem mourned for him;
25 Particularly Jeremias: whose lamentations for Josias all the singing men and singing women repeat unto this day, and it became like a law in Israel: Behold it is found written in the Lamentations.
26 Now the rest of the acts of Josias, and of his mercies, according to what was commanded by the law of the Lord;
27 And his works, first and last, are written in the Book of the kings of Juda and Israel.
1: Year of the World 3381.; 4 Kings xxiii. 21.
20: 4 Kings xxiii. 29.; Year of the World 3394, Year before Christ 610.
22: Zacharias xii. 11.