2 Paralipomenon xxxvi.
Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 3. Him. Joachaz had attempted to defend himself, and had been conducted prisoner to Reblatha, 4 Kings xxiii. 33., and Ezechiel xix. 4. He was now deposed in form, and a tribute laid upon the people. (Calmet)
Ver. 4. Brother. From the time of David, the son had always succeeded his father. (Worthington)
Ver. 6. Babylon, but sent him back soon after; (Tirinus) unless he altered his first design, (Du Hamel) and slew him disgracefully at Jerusalem. (Lyranus) (Estius) (Calmet) (4 Kings xxiii. 5.) — He allowed him to reign as a vassal other three years, but took Daniel, &c., captives. The seventy years of Jeremias, (xxv. 11.) are to be dated from this event. (The year of the world 3402.) (Usher)
Ver. 7. The vessels. Hebrew and Septuagint, “a part of the vessels;” probably the most precious, (ver. 10) breaking the rest in pieces, as he left none behind, ver. 18. — Temple of his God, Daniel i. 2.
Ver. 8. In him. The Jews explain this of the diabolical characters forbidden, Leviticus xix. 28. (Denis the Carthusian; R. Sal., &c.) — But it may simply denote the hidden sins of the king, which God will bring to light, or his rebellious conduct. (Amama) (Genesis xliv. 16.) (Calmet)
Ver. 9. Eight years old. He was associated by his father to the kingdom, when he was but eight years old; but after his father’s death, when he reigned alone, he was eighteen years old, 4 Kings xxiv. 8. (Challoner) — He only enjoyed the throne three months and ten days. (Tirinus) — We must however observe, (Haydock) that the Alexandrian Septuagint, the Syriac, and Arabic read here, eighteen. (Calmet) — “It is, in my opinion, a pity that the translators have not mended such apparent errata of the scribe of the present Hebrew out of 2 Kings xxiv. 8., or out of Septuagint, or out of common sense.” (Wall) (Kennicott) — These eight years may be dated from the captivity, and not from the king’s birth. (Usher) (Du Hamel)
Ver. 10. Year, in spring, when kings go out to war. (Calmet) — Uncle. Septuagint, “brother of his father,” which comes to the same sense, and was certainly the case. Hebrew, “his brother.” Abraham indeed gives the title to his nephew, Genesis xiii. 8. (Calmet)
Ver. 13. By God, to be faithful. (Tirinus) — This enhances his crime. (Calmet)
Ver. 15. Early. Protestants, “betimes, and sending: because,” &c. (Haydock) — Like a good master, God (Tirinus) sent his servants to work at day-break, (Haydock) omitting nothing to induce them to return to him, that he might not be forced to punish them with severity. (Calmet)
Ver. 16. Remedy. All attempts to convert them proved in vain; (Tirinus) and God, perceiving that they even despised his calls, became inexorable. (Calmet)
Ver. 18. Vessels. Only a few remained, to be restored by Cyrus, ver. 19. (Calmet)
Ver. 20. Sons; Evilmerodac and Baltassar. — Persia; Cyrus, who subdued the country.
Ver. 21. Sabbaths, every seventh year, Leviticus xxv. 2., and xxvi. 43., and Jeremias xxv. 11., and xxix. 10. — Expired: not that the earth was quite neglected, all that time, from the third year of Joakim, the year of the world 3398 till 3468. (Calmet) — But it was almost: particularly after the murder of Godolias, (Menochius) the public worship was at a stand, &c. (Haydock) — During this fifth age, the true religion subsisted invariable, not only in the kingdom of Juda, but also in that of Israel. See Worthington. (Haydock)
Ver. 22. First. Cyrus had ruled over Persia from the year of the world 3444. He was now emperor of the East. (The year of the world 3468.) (Calmet) — These two verses are repeated by Esdras, which evinces that he was the author of this work also, (Tirinus) adding them when he restored (Worthington) or revised (Haydock) the holy scriptures. (Worthington)
Ver. 23. The Lord, (Jehova.) In Esdras we find yehi, “Let,” his God. (Haydock) — Up. The sentence is completed in the following book, which makes it probable that these verses are here inserted improperly, by some transcriber. The book of Chronicles, though for many ages the last in the Hebrew manuscripts, was, perhaps, once followed by Ezra, as in Camb. Manuscript 1., (Kennicott) and as it is now in the Protestant version, taken from the Hebrew. (Haydock)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
The reigns of Joachaz, Joakim, Joachin, and Sedecias: the captivity of Babylon released at length by Cyrus.
1 Then *the people of the land took Joachaz, the son of Josias, and made him king instead of his father in Jerusalem.
2 Joachaz was three and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem.
3 And the king of Egypt came to Jerusalem, and deposed him, and condemned the land, in a hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold.
4 And he made *Eliakim, his brother, king in his stead, over Juda and Jerusalem: and he turned his name to Joakim: but he took Joachaz with him, and carried him away into Egypt.
5 Joakim was five and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem: and he did evil before the Lord, his God.
6 Against him came up Nabuchodonosor, king of the Chaldeans, and led him bound in chains into Babylon.
7 And he carried also thither the vessels of the Lord, and put them in his temple.
8 But the rest of the acts of Joakim, and his abominations, which he wrought, and the things that were found in him, are contained in the Book of the kings of Juda and Israel. And Joachin, his son, reigned in his stead.
9 Joachin was eight years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months and ten days in Jerusalem, and he did evil in the sight of the Lord.
10 And at the return of the year, king Nabuchodonosor sent, and brought him to Babylon, carrying away, at the same time, the most precious vessels of the house of the Lord: *and he made Sedecias, his uncle, king over Juda and Jerusalem.
11 Sedecias was one and twenty years old when he began to reign: and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem.
12 And he did evil in the eyes of the Lord, his God, and did not reverence the face of Jeremias, the prophet, speaking to him from the mouth of the Lord.
13 He also revolted from king Nabuchodonosor,* who had made him swear by God: and he hardened his neck and his heart, from returning to the Lord, the God of Israel.
14 Moreover, all the chief of the priests, and the people, wickedly transgressed according to all the abominations of the Gentiles: and they defiled the house of the Lord, which he had sanctified to himself in Jerusalem.
15 And the Lord, the God of their fathers, sent to them, by the hand of his messengers, rising early, and daily admonishing them: because he spared his people and his dwelling-place.
16 But they mocked the messengers of God, and despised his works, and misused the prophets, until the wrath of the Lord arose against his people, and there was no remedy.
17 For he brought upon them the king of the Chaldeans, and he slew their young men with the sword in the house of his sanctuary; he had no compassion on young man, or maiden, old man or even him that stooped for age; but he delivered them all into his hands.
18 And all the vessels of the house of the Lord, great and small, and the treasures of the temple, and of the king, and of the princes, he carried away to Babylon.
19 And the enemies set fire to the house of God, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem, burnt all the towers, and whatsoever was precious they destroyed.
20 Whosoever escaped the sword, was led into Babylon, and there served the king and his sons, till the reign of the king of Persia.
21 That the word of the Lord, by the mouth of Jeremias, might be fulfilled, and the land might keep her sabbaths: for all the days of the desolation, she kept a sabbath, till the seventy years were expired.
22 *But in the first year **of Cyrus, king of the Persians, to fulfil the word of the Lord, which he had spoken by the mouth of Jeremias, the Lord stirred up the heart of Cyrus, king of the Persians: who commanded it to be proclaimed through all his kingdom, and by writing also, saying:
23 Thus saith Cyrus, king of the Persians: All the kingdoms of the earth hath the Lord, the God of heaven, given to me, and he hath charged me to build him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judea: who is there among you of all his people? The Lord, his God, be with him, and let him go up.
1: Year of the World 3394, Year before Christ 610.; 4 Kings xxiii. 30.
4: Matthew i. 11.
10: 4 Kings xxiv. 1.; Jeremias xxxvii. 1.
13: Year of the World 3405, Year before Christ 599.
22: 1 Esdras i. 1. and vi. 3.; Jeremias xxv. 12. and xxix. 10. — ** Year of the World 3468, A.C. 536.