1 Paralipomenon iv.
Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. Charmi, the great-grandson of Juda, by Zara and Zamri, Josue vii. 1. — Junius takes him to be the same with Calubi, (chap. ii.) father of Sobal. This seems to be transcribed from another ancient register of the family of Juda, and designed to shew where the principal men had resided. (Calmet) — Only the chiefs are specified. (Du Hamel)
Ver. 2. Sarathi, who peopled Saraa. (Calmet)
Ver. 3. Posterity. So all the ancient versions seem to have read boni, instead of the present Hebrew abi, which literally means, “and these are the father of Etam.” If words ever wanted sense, they do so here. (Kennicott) — Etham is perhaps the name of a town. (Malvenda)
Ver. 7. Ethnan. Some would insert “and Cos,” to connect this with the following.
Ver. 8. Cos. Perhaps (Calmet) the same with Cenez, ver. 13. (Tirinus)
Ver. 9. Jabes. That is, sorrowful. (Challoner) — There seems to be something wanting, as we are not informed who were the brethren of Jabes. (Calmet) — This name he received from his mother, while his father Cos, called him Othoniel. (Estius)
Ver. 10. For. To reward his piety and vow. Othoniel obtained Cariath-sepher, and Axa, the daugher of Caleb, Josue xv. 17. (Calmet) — Jabes imitated holy Jacob, (Genesis xxviii.) and both desired temporal blessings, for their advancement in virtue. (Worthington)
Ver. 11. Caleb. Hebrew, “Celub,” different both from Calubi and the son of Jephone, ver. 15. (Calmet) — Brother, &c. Septuagint, “father of Ascha,” which would seem to make him the same with the latter.
Ver. 12. City. Hebrew, “Hir-Nachash.” (Haydock) — The latter term denotes “copper or a serpent.” We know not where this city was situated, no more than Recha. (Calmet)
Ver. 13. Othoniel, first judge. (Haydock) — He was brother, or rather cousin, of Caleb. See Josue xv. 17.
Ver. 14. Artificers. Hebrew Charashim, which means various sorts of “workmen,” (Calmet) or “father (prince.; Menochius) of Ge-Harasim, for,” &c. (Calmet) — Under this lord the artificers dwelt who built the temple. (Worthington)
Ver. 15. Caleb, so memorable (Calmet) for this fidelity, Numbers xii. 30., and xxxii. 12. (Haydock)
Ver. 18. Judaia, a second wife, of his own nation. By the first, from Egypt, Mered had Miriam, &c. Some words seem to be lost, which render it doubtful to whom Judaia was married.
Ver. 19. Odaia, perhaps the same with Judaia, (Calmet) as the Septuagint read. — Who was. Hebrew and Septuagint, “Machatha,” (Haydock) a place to the north of Basan, far from the limits of Juda, whence we should, perhaps, read Menuchat, as chap. ii. 52, 54.
Ver. 21. Her. Hitherto we have seem the possessions of the descendants of Phares. Those of Her inhabited the country rendered famous by the exploits of Samson with the jaw bone, Judges xv. 9. (Calmet) — The first-born of Sela was called Her, after his unfortunate uncle, Genesis xxxviii. 7. (Haydock) — That wrought. Septuagint take it for a proper name, “Ebdath.” Hebrew, Beth-habodath habuts, “the house of the byssus, or fine linen manufacturers in Beth-Ashbáah,” (Haydock) which is, perhaps, the same with Beersabee, “the well of swearing,” Genesis xxi. 31. (Calmet) — Oath. The Latin word juramenti, might be retained here, as well as Calor, chap. ii. 55. See 2 Kings xxi. 19. Septuagint read, “Esoba,” as the proper name of a place. (Haydock)
Ver. 22. He, that made, &c. viz., Joazim, the meaning of whose name in Hebrew, is, he that made the sun to stand. In like manner the following names, Lying, (Cozeba) Secure, (Joash) and Burning, (Saraph) are substituted in place of the Hebrew names of the same signification. (Challoner) — The first etymology is not perfectly accurate, as Jokim means simply, “he made to stand;” Jachin, the pillar which Solomon erected, has the same import. (Haydock) — Some injudicious person seems to have placed the sun in the margin, whence it has crept into the text. (Tirinus) — It might be occasioned by the fable of the Rabbins, who assert (Haydock) that Elimelech wrought the like miracle as Josue, to convince the people of Bethlehem of the necessity of being converted; but, finding them incorrigible, denounced a famine, which forced him to retire with his family into the country of Moab. (St. Jerome, Trad., &c.) — Elimelech died in that country; but these four descendants of Sela retired, probably, along with him, and returned afterwards to Lehem, or Bethlehem, as it is customary to omit a part of a word. (Tirinus) — This town was peopled by different branches of Juda’s family, ver. 4., and chap. ii. 54. (Calmet) — Lahem, &c. Septuagint seem to leave the original terms: “he made them return to Abedderim Athoukiim.” — Who returned, is also left as a proper name by the Protestants, (Haydock) &c. “And Jasubi Lehem.” (Vatable) (Menochius) — It is not easy to decide, when the Hebrew words should be translated. — Old. Hebrew, “and ancient words;” (Haydock) records, shewing where these families resided, (Calmet) unless this be also the name (Haydock) of a place. (Septuagint)
Ver. 23. Potters. Hebrew yotserim, may also designate some family, as it seems improbable that the princes, in Moab, should be reduced to so mean a condition. But we have many examples of such a fall; (Haydock) and it is supposed, that these descendants of Sela were employed by the king of Babylon, at Nethaim and Gadera. (Calmet) — Hedges. These are the proper names of the places where they dwelt. In Hebrew, Netahim and Gedera. (Challoner) — Septuagint, “Ataim and Gadera.” (Haydock) — The correct Roman edition of the Vulgate prints these words, plantationibus et Sepibus, with large letters, to imply as much. (Menochius) — King; David. (Sa) (Menochius) — Many of the tribe of Juda attended David, while he was forced to flee before Saul, and to hide himself in unfrequented places. Some of them might be these Yotserim, or they might follow the profession of potters. (Haydock) — “With the king they were powerful in his kingdom, and dwelt there.” (Septuagint) (Haydock) — The Vulgate often gives the meaning of proper names. (Du Hamel)
Ver. 24. Namuel, or Jamuel, Genesis xlvi. 10. — Jarib; perhaps the same with Sohar, (Menochius) unless the latter be Zara, or Zare, Numbers xxvi. 12. These genealogies seem different; but the same person (Calmet) might have many names. (Du Hamel)
Ver. 27. Juda, probably, not even in the following cities, which they inhabited along with them. This tribe of Simeon was always the weakest, and kept close to Juda. See Numbers xxvi. 14.
Ver. 30. Bathuel appears to be the same with Bethulia, Judith vi. 7. (Calmet)
Ver. 31. David, who had Siceleg given to him, 1 Kings xxvii. 6. (Haydock) — After the schism, Juda straitened the tribe of Simeon; so that it was forced to seek for other habitations in Gador, under Ezechias, ver. 39., &c. (Calmet) — It could no longer reside among those of the tribe of Juda, (Du Hamel) and acknowledge another king. (Haydock)
Ver. 33. Baal, or Ballath, Josue xix. 1. — Distribution. Hebrew and Septuagint, “and their genealogy.” (Menochius) — Katalogismos, may as well have the former signification, “their class;” (Haydock) though the sequel seems to determine it in the latter sense. (Du Hamel)
Ver. 34. Mosabab. This and the following princes joined their forces, to conquer fresh territories from Gador, (Haydock) or Gadara, near Joppe, (Strabo xvi.) which had been long in the possession (Haydock) of the Egyptians, (ver. 40.; Calmet) or Philistines. (Malvenda)
Ver. 40. Cham. It is not certain that the Philistines, who came from the country of the Casluim, were descendants of Mezraim, Genesis x. 14. But it is very clear that the Egyptians sprung from Cham, Psalm lxxvii. 51.
Ver. 41. Inhabitants. Septuagint, “and the Mineans.” Hebrew meyenim, “the inhabitants of Maon,” in Arabia. See Judges x. 11. Syriac and Arabic, “the fountains.”
Ver. 42. Jesi; perhaps Asaia, by the transposition of one letter; (ver. 36.; Calmet) or these chiefs were remote descendants of Jesi, ver. 20. (Haydock) — The expedition probably took place about the same time as the preceding, to avoid the attack of the Assyrians, or of Juda, by retiring farther into Arabia. (Calmet)
Ver. 43. Escape the arms of Saul, or of David. (Du Hamel) — Day. It seems, therefore, that they escaped captivity, having abandoned their own country; or this was taken from a record, which had been made before that event, and is here inserted by Esdras; though, when he wrote, these Simeonites might have experienced the fate of their brethren, who were led captives in the 6th year of Ezechias. (Haydock)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
Other genealogies of Juda and of Simeon, and their victories.
1 The *sons of Juda: Phares, Hesron, and Charmi, and Hur, and Sobal.
2 And Raia the son of Sobal, beget Jahath, of whom were born Ahumai, and Laad. These are the families of Sarathi.
3 And this is the posterity of Etom: Jezrahel, and Jesema, and Jedebos: and the name of their sister was Asalelphuni.
4 And Phanuel, the father of Gedor, and Ezar, the father of Hosa: these are the sons of Hur, the first-born of Ephrata, the father of Bethlehem.
5 And Assur, the father of Thecua, had two wives, Halaa and Naara:
6 And Naara bore him Oozam, and Hepher, and Themani, and Ahasthari: these are the sons of Naara.
7 And the sons of Halaa: Sereth, Isaar, and Ethnan.
8 And Cos begot Anob, and Soboba, and the kindred of Aharehel, the son of Arum.
9 And Jabes was more honourable than any of his brethren, and his mother called his name Jabes, saying: Because I bore him with sorrow.
10 And Jabes called upon the God of Israel, saying: If blessing thou wilt bless me, and wilt enlarge my borders, and thy hand be with me, and thou save me from being oppressed by evil. And God granted him the things he prayed for.
11 And Caleb, the brother of Sua, beget Mahir, who was the father of Esthon.
12 And Esthon beget Bethrapha, and Phesse, and Tehinna, father of the city of Naas: These are the men of Recha.
13 And the sons of Cenez, were Othoniel, and Saraia. And the sons of Othoniel, Hathath, and Maonathi.
14 Maonathi beget Ophra, and Saraia begot Joab, the father of the valley of Artificers: for artificers were there.
15 And the sons of Caleb, the son of Jephone, were Hir, and Ela, and Naham. And the son of Ela: Cenez.
16 The sons also of Jaleleel, Ziph, and Zipha, Thiria, and Asrael.
17 And the sons of Esra: Jether, and Mered, and Epher, and Jalon, and he beget Mariam, and Sammai, and Jesba, the father of Esthamo.
18 And his wife, Judaia, bore Jared, the father of Gedor, and Heber, the father of Socho, and Icuthiel, the father of Zanoe. And these are the sons of Bethia, the daughter of Pharao, whom Mered took to wife.
19 And the sons of his wife Odaia, the sister of Naham, the father of Ceila, were Garmi, and Esthamo, who was of Machathi.
20 The sons also of Simon: Amnon, and Rinna, the son of Hanan, and Thilon. And the sons of Jesi: Zoheth and Benzoheth.
21 The sons of *Sela, the son of Juda: Her, the father of Lecha, and Laada, the father of Maresa, and the families of the house of them that wrought fine linen in the house of Oath.
22 And He, that made the sun to stand, and the men of Lying, and Secure, and Burning, who were princes in Moab, and who returned into Lahem. Now these are things of old.
23 These are the potters, and they dwelt in Plantations and Hedges, with the king for his works, and they abode there.
24 The sons of *Simeon: Namuel, and Jamin, Jarib, Zara, Saul:
25 Sellum his son, Mapsam his son, Masma his son.
26 The sons of Masma: Hamuel his son, Zachur his son, Semei his son.
27 The sons of Semei were sixteen, and six daughters: but his brethren had not many sons, and the whole kindred could not reach to the sum of the children of Juda.
28 And they dwelt in Bersabee, and Molada, and Hasarsuhal,
29 And in Bala, and in Asom, and in Tholad,
30 And in Bathuel, and in Horma, and in Siceleg,
31 And in Bethmarchaboth, and in Hasarsusim, and in Bethberai, and in Saarim. These were their cities unto the reign of David.
32 Their towns also were Etam, and Aen, Remmon, and Thochen, and Asan, five cities.
33 And all their villages round about these cities as far as Baal. This was their habitation and the distribution of their dwellings.
34 And Mosabab, and Jemlech, and Josa, the son of Amasias,
35 And Joel, and Jehu, the son of Josabia, the son of Saraia, the son of Asiel,
36 And Elioenai, and Jacoba, and Isuhaia, and Isaia, and Adiel, and Ismiel, and Banaia;
37 Ziza also, the son of Sephei, the son of Allon, the son of Idaia, the son of Semri, the son of Samaia.
38 These were named princes in their kindreds, and in the houses of their families were multiplied exceedingly.
39 And they went forth to enter into Gador, as far as the east side of the valley, to seek pastures for their flocks.
40 And they found fat pastures, and very good, and a country spacious, and quiet, and fruitful, in which some of the race of Cham had dwelt before.
41 And these, whose names are written above, came in the days of Ezechias, king of Juda: and they beat down their tents, and slew the inhabitants that were found there, and utterly destroyed them unto this day: and they dwelt in their place, because they found there fat pastures.
42 Some also of the children of Simeon, five hundred men, went into Mount Seir, having for their captains, Phaltias and Naaria, and Raphaia, and Oziel, the sons of Jesi:
43 And they slew the remnant of the Amalecites, who had been able to escape, and they dwelt there in their stead unto this day.
1: Genesis xxxviii. 3. and xlvi. 12.; 1 Paralipomenon ii. 4.; Matthew i. 3.
21: Genesis xxxviii. 5.
24: Genesis xlvi. 10.