Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. Root. Juda shall not be exterminated, like the Assyrians. (Calmet) — Christ shall spring from the blessed Virgin [Mary], (Worthington) for the salvation of mankind. The Jews agree, that this prediction regards the Messias; though some, with Grotius, would explain it literally of Ezechias. They do not reflect that he was now ten years old, and that the prophet speaks of an event which should still take place after he had been a long while upon the throne. If we were to look for any figure of the Messias, to whom this might be applicable, it would be Zorobabel, Zacharias iii. 8. But how disproportionate would be the promises to the execution? Some passages may indeed relate to the return of the captives, (ver. 11.) as the people must have a more immediate object, to insure the accomplishment of the more elevated predictions concerning the Messias: but these also refer ultimately to the propagation of the gospel, which the prophet had also in view. (Calmet)
Ver. 2. Him. In the form of a dove, John i. 32. (Haydock) — “The whole fountain of the Holy Ghost descending.” (Ev. Nazar.) (St. Jerome) — Christ was filled with his seven gifts, and of his fullness his servants receive. (Worthington) — Yet all virtues are the gifts of the holy Spirit, and the number seven is not specified in Hebrew, as the same word (Calmet) yirath, is rendered godliness, which (ver. 3.) means, the fear of the Lord. (Haydock) — God enables us to penetrate the difficulties of Scripture, and to act with prudence, &c. (Menochius)
Ver. 3. Filled. Hebrew, “breath or smell.” So St. Paul says, (2 Corinthians ii. 15.) we are the good odour of Christ. (Calmet) — Protestants, “he shall make him of quick understanding (marginal note, smell) in the fear,” &c. (Haydock) — Ears. Which are often deceived. (Menochius)
Ver. 4. Wicked. Antichrist, (2 Thessalonians ii. 8.) and all impiety, by means of the apostles.
Ver. 5. Reins. He shall possess these virtues, performing his promises with the strictest fidelity. (Calmet)
Ver. 6. Wolf. Some explain this of the Millennium. (apud St. Jerome) (Lactantius vii. 24.) — But the more intelligent understand, that the fiercest nations shall embrace the gospel, and kings obey the pastors of the Church. (Calmet) — Lead. Or “drive,” as the word is used by Festus. (Haydock)
Ver. 8. Basilisk. Psalm ix. 13. The apostles subdued kings and philosophers, without any human advantages.
Ver. 9. Kill. The most inveterate pagans, being once converted, entirely alter their manners, Osee ii. 18.
Ver. 10. Ensign. The cross is the standard of Christians. — Sepulchre. Hebrew, Septuagint, &c., “rest.” St. Jerome give the true sense. The holy places have been greatly reverenced, and Christian princes strove for a long time to recover them. (Calmet) — They are respected even by the Turks. Christ’s death was ignominious, but his monument was full of glory. Thus the saints begin to shine, where the glory of the wicked ends. (Worthington)
Ver. 11. Time. After the deliverance from Sennacherib, they shall return from captivity. Ezechias recalled some few, 2 Paralipomenon xxix. 9. — Remnant. Some embraced the gospel, Romans ii. 2., and Acts ii. 41., &c. — Phetros, in Egypt. — Of the Mediterranean sea, and all places to which the Jews went by water.
Ver. 13. Away. Under Ezechias the Israelites began to join with Juda. But they did it more cordially after their return from Babylon.
Ver. 14. Shoulders. Or confines, Ezechiel xxv. 9. Ezechias and the Machabees attacked the Philistines. (Calmet) — Septuagint, “and they shall fly on the ships of the strangers; they shall plunder the sea together, and those on the east, and Idumea.” (Haydock) — East. Ammonites, &c., often defeated by the Machabees, and probably by Ezechias.
Ver. 15. Tongue. Gulf of the Mediterranean, near Pelusium, or the seven mouths of the river Nile. The country was ravaged by Sennacherib, Cambyses, Alex.[Alexander the Great?], and Epiphanes, chap. xix. 4., &c. The Jewish captives shall return thence, chap. l. 3., and Zacharias x. 10.
Ver. 16. Assyrians. They shall march without impediment. (Calmet)
Bible Text & Cross-references:Of the spiritual kingdom of Christ, to which all nations shall repair.
1 And *there shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall rise up out of his root.
2 And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him: the spirit of wisdom, and of understanding, the spirit of counsel, and of fortitude, the spirit of knowledge, and of godliness.
3 And he shall be filled with the spirit of the fear of the Lord. He shall not judge according to the sight of the eyes, nor reprove according to the hearing of the ears.
4 But he shall judge the poor with justice, and shall reprove with equity, for the meek of the earth: *and he shall strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips he shall slay the wicked.
5 And justice shall be the girdle of his loins: and faith the girdle of his reins.
6 *The wolf shall dwell with the lamb: and the leopard shall lie down with the kid: the calf, and the lion, and the sheep, shall abide together, and a little child shall lead them.
7 The calf, and the bear shall feed: their young ones shall rest together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox.
8 And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp: and the weaned child shall thrust his hand into the den of the basilisk.
9 They shall not hurt, nor shall they kill in all my holy mountain, for the earth is filled with the knowledge of the Lord, as the covering waters of the sea.
10 *In that day the root of Jesse, who standeth for an ensign of people, him the Gentiles shall beseech, and his sepulchre shall be glorious.
11 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand the second time to possess the remnant of his people, which shall be left from the Assyrians, and from Egypt, and from Phetros, and from Ethiopia, and from Elam, and from Sennaar, and from Emath, and from the islands of the sea.
12 And he shall set up a standard unto the nations, and shall assemble the fugitives of Israel, and shall gather together the dispersed of Juda from the four quarters of the earth.
13 And the envy of Ephraim shall be taken away, and the enemies of Juda shall perish: Ephraim shall not envy Juda, and Juda shall not fight against Ephraim.
14 But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines by the sea, they together shall spoil the children of the east: Edom, and Moab, shall be under the rule of their hand, and the children of Ammon shall be obedient.
15 And the Lord shall lay waste the tongue of the sea of Egypt, and shall lift up his hand over the river in the strength of his spirit: and he shall strike it in the seven streams, so that men may pass through it in their shoes.
16 And there shall be a highway for the remnant of my people, which shall be left from the Assyrians: as there was for Israel in the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt.
1: Acts xiii. 23.; Isaias liii. 2.
4: 2 Thessalonians ii. 8.
6: Isaias lxv. 25.
10: Romans xv. 12.